Torture and Bullying
As a type of coercion, torture and bullying deprive people of freedom, a basic
human right. This section provides information on the types and reports of
torture and bullying
Definition of Torture
Types of Torture
Torture Documentation
National Reports of Torture
Torture  Challenges

Torture  Case Studies
Torture and Bullying Links

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Last Update:  May 12, 2015 
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Definition of Torture

  Article 1 of the United Nations Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment
or Punishment (UNCAT):

HFRC bases the classification of torture data  on this website on the UNCAT definition

... 'torture' means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a
person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act
he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person,
or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or
with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain
or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions


Torture Documentation



Forensic evidence against torture. Editorial.
Vieira DN.
. 2012;22 Suppl 1:1-4.


Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors
from sub-Saharan African countrie
de Fouchier C, Blanchet A, Hopkins W, et al
Eur J Psychotraumatol
. 2012;3

  Statement on access to relevant medical and other health records and relevant legal records for
forensic medical evaluations of alleged torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or

International Forensic Expert Group.
. 2012;22 Suppl 1:39-48.

Torture documentation inside detention centres. [Letter]
Cooper M, Cotton P.
. 2011;21(3):195-6.



Screening for Torture: A Narrative Checklist Comparing Legal Definitions in a Torture Treatment Clinic.
Rasmussen A, Crager M, Keatley E,  et al
Z Psychol
. 2011;219(3):143-149.


Medical bodies urge investigation of alleged involvement in torture.
Mayor S.
. 2004 Aug 28;329(7464):473.

The health of survivors of torture and organised violence
Angela Burnett, Michael Peel
2001 March 10; 322(7286): 606609.


Torture--a perspective on the past.
L Eitinger
J Med Ethics. 1991 December; 17(Suppl): 910.
The BMA's torture report and afterwards.
J Dawson
J Med Ethics. 1991 December; 17(Suppl): 1718
Statutes of the International Tribunal for Investigation of Torture.
O Espersen
J Med Ethics. 1991 December; 17(Suppl): 64.


Torture Case Studies
  Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment
or punishment.

Juan E. Mndez,
United Nations General Assembly Human Rights Counsel, Feb.1, 2013 

Two cases of the use of snakes in psychological torture in East Africa .{Letter]
Cooper M, Cotton P.
. 2010;20(1):53-4.



The Human Family Research Center
Torture and Bullying