Human Trafficking
Human trafficking is the enslavement and exploitation of human beings which can involve different types of abuses
such as sexual exploitation, forced or bonded labor, domestic servitude, forced marriage, organ removal, and the
exploitation of children in begging, the sex trade
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Last Update:  September 06, 2016 


Nuns Intercede for Victims of Sex Trafficking in Italy
Elisabetta Povoledo

New York Times,
May 2, 2015

This article reports on efforts by Catholic nuns in Italy to assist victims of human trafficking through approximately
100 shelters in the country.  These nuns are part of a European network of religious congregations which are
dedicated to supporting all victims of human trafficking, including children, who are
sold into forced labor, slavery
or organ trafficking.

  Presidential Proclamation on National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2015
​This proclamation explains why it is so important to continue and reinforce efforts to stop human trafficking.​

  10 Things You Didn't Know About Slavery, Human Trafficking (And What You Can Do About It) 
Eleanor Goldberg,
The Huffington Post, 

1 /15/14

  Holder Vows 'Zero Tolerance' To Human Trafficking
by Carrie Johnson
April 25, 2012
Forced labor and underage prostitution are hiding in plain sight in cities all over the U.S. and are no longer problems
confined to the developing world, according to Attorney General Eric Holder.
(click on the above link to listed to his speech)
The Road of Lost Innocence: The True Story of a Cambodian Heroine [Book]Z


The Road of Lost Innocence,
Mam, Somaly, New York: Spiegel and Grau, 2008.

A girlís will is easily broken and she quickly learns she has nowhere to run.  They couldnít go back to their homes
because they were no longer welcome there.  They were broken.  They had no skills, no way to support themselves
 on their own.  They were condemned to sell themselves more or less forever. Some girls are
sold as young as five or six to make sure they are virgin.




Little Princes  One Manís Promise to Bring Home the Lost Children of Nepal.     
Grennan, Conor.  New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2010.


A man named Golkka who stole children by lying to parents during Nepalís civil war told the children to tell anyone
who asked that their parents were dead.  It was far more effective in getting donations from tourists and would
also help explain to local authorities why one man had so many children under his guardianship.  If a
child made a mistake and told of his parents being alive, Golkka beat him.


Golkka took children from their families during the civil war for a great price, telling them they would receive protection. 
Then he would drop them off at orphanages run by international organizations.  The organizations were only concerned
about the safety of children and bought his story that the children were true orphans.  When word spread in Kathmandu
of his practices, organizations had to make a hard choice.  They stopped taking children from him, even knowing that some
children might have been in danger.  There was no other way to stem the flow of his trafficking.

Federal Laws on Human Trafficking|

This site provides a summary of and cites to current federal laws on human trafficking, beginning with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000.
  Technology and Labor Trafficking in a Network Society
Mark Latonero,  Bronwyn Wex,, Meredith Dank,
Center for Communication Leadership & Policy (CCLP), USCís Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism, 2015

This report outlines how technology can be used to exploit or help victims of human trafficking.


Human Trafficking; Trends in the United States
Polaris Project, January, 2014

The Polaris Project is designed to combat human trafficking throughout the world.  The site has resources to enable people
o fight this new slavery.  According to the project, "There are two primary factors driving the spread of human trafficking:
high profits and low risk. Like drug and arms trafficking, human trafficking is a market-driven criminal industry that is based
on the principles of supply and demand

  Department of Justice Office for Victims of Crime Human Trafficking Task Force E-Guide 

This is designed as a resource for those who identify human trafficking, serving victims and investigating and
building cases, including training, technical assistance and community awareness/education.  The site also
includes a list of emergency contacts.


"Human Trafficking in America's Schools".
a guide published by the United States Department of Education for educators on identifying and preventing child
trafficking in schools.
This guide is funded by the U.S. Department of Education and addresses the challenges of improving the conditions
for learning at the school, district, state, and higher education levels in the face of the threat of human trafficking.  
The guide includes recommendations regarding the indicators of the crime, its warning signs, and how to respond
when a student is an apparent victim.  Information on upcoming events such as webinars and news is included.


  Recognizing and Responding to Human Trafficking among American Indian, Alaska Native and
Pacific Islander Communities.

United States Government,  1/29/15

This is a memo that provides recommendations on recognizing and responding to human trafficking among American Indians
and other populations.
  Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services to Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States
US Coordination Collaboration CapaCity  January 2014

The Plan is a joint effort by several United States agencies, primarily HHS, DOJ and Homeland Security, and provides a
coordinated effort to eliminate and deal with the consequences of human trafficking. The Plan covers the years 2013-17.

Human Trafficking Survivors Open Up About Horrors
Eleanor Goldberg
The Huffington Post


This article tells the stories of several victims of human trafficking.

  Data and Research on Human Trafficking:  A Global Survey
edited by Frank Laczko and Elzbieta Gozdziak
International Migration Vol. 43 (1/2) 2005 

This is a broad overview of recent research and data on trafficking in particular regions of the world.

  Gendercide and the Cultural Context of Sex Trafficking in China,
a previously unpublished paper by Susan W. Tiefenbrun, 2008,
Thomas Jefferson School of Law

This paper discusses the interconnection of historic, legal, and cultural contexts that result in the perpetuation of discrimination
against women in Chinese society including the causes for an increase in trafficking of women and the deplorable human rights
violations perpetrated upon women in China today

  NEW LAW: Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act of 2014

This legislation became law on September 29, 2014 with the Presidentís signature.  It was passed on a bipartisan basis
and is aimed at reducing child sex trafficking, increasing adoptions and improving child support collections.
Human Family Research Center Factsheet on Law



Utilizing DNA Analysis to Combat the Worldwide Plague of Present Day Slavery - Trafficking in Persons
Timothy Palmback,, Jeffrey Blom, Emily Hoynes, et al
Croat MedJ. 2014 February, 55(1): 3-8

This study showed that the use of rapid DNA is very promising in the arrest of those involved in cases of sexual exploitation.

  An International Comparative Public Health Analysis of Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls in Eight Cities:
Achieving a More Effective Health Sector Response

Konstantopoulosr WM,  Ahn R, Alpert EJ, et al
J Urban Health v.90(6); Dec 2013

Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls
Neha A. Deshpande, Nawal M. Nour
Review of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2013;6(1):e22-7


This article provides an overview of the psychological and physical health problems associated with the worldwide 32 billion dollar tragedy
of sex trafficking of women and girls.



Risk factors for mental disorders in women survivors of human trafficking: a historical cohort study.
Melanie Abas, Nicolae V Ostrovschi, Martin Prince,1Viorel I Gorceag, Carolina Trigub,and Si‚n Oram
BMC Psychiatry.
2013 Aug 3;13:204.

This study reveals the high levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder among women survivors of human trafficking.

Prevalence and Risk of Violence and the Physical, Mental and Sexual Health Problems Associated with Human Trafficking: Systematic Review  ,
Sian Oram, Heidi Stockl, Joanna Busza, Louise M. Howard and Cathy Zimmerman
PLoS Med. 2012;9(5):e1001224.

This article reviews the health consequences of human trafficking, providing a systematic review of studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence
while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems,
including HIV, among trafficked people.


Enslaved in America: Sex Trafficking in the United States
Tina Frund
Women 's Funding Network
May 2012

This is a story written by a woman who was forced into prostitution at age 14.  The story describes what happened to her and that she now works for
Polaris Project, a non-profit anti-trafficking organization in Washington, D.C..  The acceptance of pimps in the media is discussed as well as the
manipulation that occurs between the victim and the abuser which prevents the victim from leaving.  The author describes how prostitution is slavery
and urges readers to understand the reality of what women and young girls go through in order to try to help them.



Human trafficking affecting millions, including some in the U.S.
Elizabeth Flock
The Washington Post
April 04, 2012

This article gives a brief account of the current statistics in the United Nations 2012 report on human trafficking.  It also discusses the website,
run by Village Voice media, which is being used for human trafficking advertisements.  There is also a video included of the state department's media coverage
of the 2012 United Nations report which includes a handful of people from around the world receiving awards for helping their countries fight human trafficking.


  Trafficking in Persons
US Central Intelligence Agency
Updated weekly.

This report gives information on the current situation of human trafficking in 64 different countries.  The information was gathered for and comes from the 2010
 Trafficking in Persons Report prepared by the US Department of State.  Besides providing basic information on what types of trafficking occur, the report lists
whether each country is in tier two or tier three watch list.  A tier two watch list rating indicates that a country does not fully comply with the minimum
standards for the elimination of human trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so.  A tier three watch list rating indicates that a country neither satisfies
the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking nor demonstrates a significant effort to do so.

  Human Trafficking: The Shameful Face of Migration
The PLoS Medicine Editors
June 21, 2011

This article analyzes the deficiencies in our understanding of the breadth of the human trafficking problem, including enforcement of the two Palermo Protocols adopted
by the United Nations

  Global Report On Trafficking In Persons
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes
February 2009

This report provides facts on human trafficking and shows how different countries have taken steps to prevent its occurrence.  The steps taken by reporting countries
include the passage of new laws, convicting criminals, establishing anti-human trafficking police units and developing national action plans to deal with the issue. 
The report discusses human trafficking sources and destination countries, the fact that women make up a large percentage of perpetrators and the different ways
abuse takes place.  The report suggests that a more thorough and organized system of collecting data is needed to implement solutions and determine whether any
intervention is having an effect.

  United States State Trafficking Laws
Research Solutions

This is a listing of the laws of each state as of 2008 that pertain to human trafficking.  Examples of laws included are criminal penalties, the availability of a training
program for state and local law enforcement officials that teaches them how to handle human trafficking cases and victims, address confidentiality program for victims 
and asset forfeiture programs.


  A Survey and 5-point Analysis of Modern Day Human Trafficking
A Senior Project

Sarah Wietbrock
June, 2011

This essay gives a description of human trafficking, discusses the types of trafficking that exist and provides several stories of trafficked victims.  The essay describes
how globalization, capitalism, instability, environmental degradation and colonialism in Africa may contribute to the problem of human trafficking.  The author's analysis
is highly ideological but the essay gives some interesting opinions on why human trafficking has come to be and continued to this day.


Recognize the signs of human trafficking, and be prepared to act.
[No authors listed]
ED Manag
. 2011 Aug;23(8):93-5.




Human Trafficking In The U.S.: One Woman's Story
Sara Lerner
August 01, 2012

This article from states that Washington was the first state in the U.S. to make human trafficking a crime on the state level and how 44 other states have followed
 their lead by passing a similar law.  The article explains how the U.S. must be better at identifying victims but that there has been great movement in the last ten
years to address the issue and bring attention to it.  Included is a story of a woman from East Africa who received justice after enduring being trafficked to Seattle
for work as a housekeeper.




Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.
Barrows J, Finger R.
South Med J
. 2008 May;101(5):521-4


  Bibliography of Research-Based Literature on Human Trafficking:  2008-2014 
Elzbieta M. Gozdziak, PhD with Sarah Graveline, Whitney Skippings, and Minna Song
Georgetown University Institute for the Study of International Migration, February, 2015
  HOTLINE:  The National Human Trafficking Resource Center national, victim-centered, toll-free hotline.
The National Human Trafficking Resource Center provides referrals, resources, general information and training and
technical assistance. 

For Help or to report a tip, call 1-888-373-7888 or text BeFree (233733)

  The Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools

The Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools put together this fact sheet to help readers identify and help human trafficking victims.  Listed are resources on what
human trafficking is, who it involves, signs which indicate that someone is a victim, how to report a suspected incidence and websites which provide further information.

  Study of HHS Programs Serving Human Trafficking Victims

This is a list of reports published between 2007 and 2010 that provide information which HHS can use to design and implement effective programs and services to help
victims of human trafficking.  The study contains ten issue briefs that describe the needs of trafficked victims, approaches to their treatment and recovery and the programs
and services that have been put in place to help them.

  The Campaign to Rescue & Resort Victims of Human Trafficking

This website by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services provides information about anti-human trafficking efforts in their Rescue and Restore program. 
There are many links to information such as different forms of human trafficking and fact sheets.  The website lists resources that local organizations and law
enforcement can use to reach out to victims
  Human Trafficking Foundation
The purpose of this Web site is to bring Government and NGOs in the East Asia and Pacific together to cooperate and learn from each otherís experiences in their
efforts to combat human trafficking.

Human Trafficking Laws and Regulations
U.S. Department of Homeland Security  

This site provides information on laws and resources for victims of human trafficking.


he opinion of the authors of the articles  do not necessarily reflect the views of the HFRC.  

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The Human Family Research Center
Human Trafficking